Kompetensi PNS Apa dan Bagaimana?

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A. Latar Belakang

Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi, mengatakan bahwa dari 4,7 juta Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS), sebanyak 95% PNS tidak kompeten, dan hanya 5% memiliki kompetensi dalam pekerjaannya (Harian Umum Pikiran Rakyat, Kamis 1 Maret 2012).

Pernyataan Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi ini mungkin mendapat tanggapan yang beragam dari berbagai kalangan, baik kalangan PNS itu sendiri maupun yang bekerja di sektor swasta. Mungkin ada yang kaget seolah-olah tidak percaya apakah betul PNS ini tidak kompeten, ada juga yang biasa-biasa saja tidak memberikan komentar, dan mungkin ada yang berpendapat, kalau tidak memiliki kompetensi bagaimana bisa melaksanakan pelayanan kepada publik atau masyarakat, dan mungkin ada komentar yang radikal, apabila tidak memiliki kompetensi lebih baik PNS ini mengundurkan diri saja.

Pernyataan Menteri Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara dan Reformasi Birokrasi bagi kalangan PNS merupakan salah satu bahan intropeksi diri untuk memperbaiki dan meningkatkan kompetensi, karena PNS adalah berkedudukan sebagai unsur aparatur negara yang bertugas untuk memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat secara profesional, jujur, adil, dan merata dalam penyelenggaraan tugas negara, pemerintahan, dan pembangunan.

Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Nomor 8 Tahun 1974 Jo Undang-Undang Nomor 43 Tahun 1999 tentang Pokok-pokok Kepegawaian, dijelaskan bahwa Pegawai Negeri adalah setiap warga negara Republik Indonesia yang telah memenuhi syarat yang ditentukan, diangkat oleh pejabat yang berwenang dan diserahi tugas dalam suatu jabatan negeri, atau diserahi tugas negara lainnya, dan digaji berdasarkan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.Selanjutnya dijelaskan bahwa Pegawai Negeri terdiri dari : Pegawai Negeri Sipil, Anggota Tentara Nasional Indonesia; dan Anggota Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia.

Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS) terdiri dari: Pegawai Negeri Sipil Pusat dan Pegawai Negeri Sipil Daerah.

Dapat dibayangkan kalau seandainya PNS ini tidak memiliki kompetensi, akan berakibat atau berpengaruh terhadap pelayanan kepada masyarakat, misanya pelayanan menjadi lambat, bekerja asal-asalan, tidak maksimal, tidak efisien dan hasilnya tidak sesuai dengan standar operasional prosedur (SOP) yang telah ditentukan.

Sebenarnya sudah berbagai program dan kegiatan yang telah diupayakan oleh Pemerintah untuk meningkatkan kompetensi PNS, seperti melakukan reformasi birokrasi, berbagai Diklat dalam jabatan, berbagai Diklat fungsional, berbagai Diklat teknis, workshop, seminar dan kegiatan ilmiah lainnya, tapi mengapa PNS masih diindikasikan tidak memiliki kompetensi?.

Mungkin sudah banyak tulisan yang membahas masalah kompetensi PNS, tetapi apa salahnya tulisan di bawah ini akan membahas apa, mengapa dan bagaimana kaitannya dengan kompetensi PNS ini, mudah-mudahan bermanpaat.


B. Apa itu Kompetensi ?

Kata “kompetensi” memiliki pengertian menyoroti aspek dan penekanan yang relatif berbeda. Kompetensi memiliki pengertian yang sama dengan capability (kemampuan). Seseorang yang kompeten adalah yang memiliki kemampuan, pengetahuan dan keahlian untuk melakukan sesuatu secara efisien dan efektif.

Mengingat banyaknya pengertian kompetensi yang dikemukakan dalam kamus dan juga oleh para ahli, berikut ini diuraikan beberapa pengertian kompetensi : 
  1. Berdasarkan kamus bahasa Indonesia, pengertian kompetensi adalah kewenangan (kekuasaan) untuk menentukan atau memutuskan sesuatu hal; 
  2. Menurut Burgoyne (1998), kompetensi adalah kemampuan dan kemauan untuk melakukan tugas;
  3. Menurut Woodruffe (1990), kompetensi ialah dimensi perilaku yang mempengaruhi kinerja; 
  4. Menurut Furnham (1990), kompetensi adalah kemampuan dasar dan kualitas kinerja yang diperlukan untuk mengerjakan pekerjaan dengan baik; 
  5. Menurut Mitrani (1992), kompetensi adalah karakteristik yang mendasari seseorang dan berkaitan dengan efektivitas kinerja individu dalam pekerjaannya; 
  6. Menurut Murphy (1993), kompetensi adalah bakat, sifat dan keahlian individu apapun yang dapat dibuktikan, dapat dihubungkan dengan kinerja yang efektif dan baim sekali;
  7. Menurut Amstrong dan Baron (1998), competence menggambarkan apa yang dibutuhkan agar ia mampu melaksanakan pekerjaannya dengan baik. Pengertian competence lebih memberikan perhatian pada akibat daripada usaha dan pada output daripada input.Competence mengacu pada dimensi perilaku sehingga sering juga disebut kompetensi perilaku. Pengertian competence untuk menggambarkan bagaimana orang berperilaku ketika mereka melakukan perannya dengan baik; 
  8. Menurut Training Agency (1988), competence adalah konsep luas, ,e,uat kemampuan menstransfer keahlian dan kemampuan kepada situasi baru dalam wilayah kerja. Menyangkut organisasi dan pekerjaan, inovasi dan mengatasi aktivitas personel yang dibutuhkan di tempat berkaitan dengan rekan kerja, manajer serta pelanggan; 
  9. Menurut Spencer dan Spencer (1993), kompetensi sebagai suatu karakteristik dasar dari seorang individu yang secara sebab akibat berhubungan dengan criterion-referenced effective dan/atau kinerja yang tinggi sekali dalam melakukan suatu pekerjaan. Karakteristik individu apapun yang dapat dihitung dan diukur secara konsisten, dapat dibuktikan untuk membedakan secara signifikan antara kinerja yang efektif. SelanjutnyaSpencer dan Spencer (1993), membagi kompetensi ke dalam 2 (dua) kategori, yaitu : “threshold competencies” dan “differentiating competencies”. Threshold competencies,adalah karakteristik utama yang harus dimiliki oleh seseorang agar dapat melaksanakan pekerjaannya. Tetapi tidak untuk membedakan seorang yang berkinerja tinggi dan rata-rata. Sedangkan differentiating competencies adalah faktor-faktor yang membedakan individu yang berkinerja tinggi dan rendah ; 
  10. Menurut Civil Service College (1997), kompetensi adalah kemampuan perorangan untuk melaksanakan pekerjaannya di tempat kerja dengan memenuhi standar. Kompetensi merujuk pada kecakapan atau kelayakan seseorang dalam organisasi untuk menjalankan tugas dengan sempurna. Kompetensi merujuk pada sifat (trait) individu yang dapat atau berhubungan dengan prestasi kerja. Kecakapan yang dimaksudkan boleh didasarkan kepada motif, sifat, sikap atau nilai, tahap pengetahuan atau pemikiran (kognitif) atau kemahiran bertingkah laku; 
  11. Menurut Covey, Roger dan Rabecca Meril (1994), kompetensi mencaku : 
Kompetensi Teknis, yaitu pengetahuan dan keahlian untuk mencapai hasil yang telah disepakati, kemampuan untuk memikirkan persoalan dan mencari alternative baru; 
Kompetensi konseptual adalah kemampuan melihat gambar besar, untuk menguji berbagai pengandaian dan mengubah perspektif; 
Kompetensi untuk hidup dalam ketergantungan kemampuan, guna berinteraksi secara efektif dengan orang lain, termasuk kemampuan mendengar, berkomunikasi, mendapat alternative lain, kemampuan untuk melihat dan beroprasi secara efektif dalam organisasi atau system yang utuh. 

12. Menurut David Mc.Clelland, kompetensi adalah karakteristik yang mendasar yang dimiliki seseorang yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap atau dapat memprediksikan kinerja yang sangat baik. Selanjutnya David Mc.Clelland berpendapat bahwa kompetensi ini ibarat “gunung es”, dimana keterampilan dan pengetahuan membentuk puncaknya yang berada di atas air. Bagian yang dibawah permukaan air tidak terlihat dengan mata, namun menjadi fondasi dan memiliki pengaruh terhadap bentuk dari bagian yang berada di atas air. Peran social dan citra diri berada apada bagian “sadar” seseorang, sedangkan bakat/sifat dan motif seseorang berada apad alam “bawah sadar”nya;

13. Berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 101 Tahun 2000 tentang Diklat Jabatan PNS, bahwa kompetensi adalah kemampuan dan karakteristik yang dimiliki oleh seorang PNS berupa pengetahuan, keterampilan dan sikap perilaku yang diperlukan dalam melaksanakan tugas jabatannya;

14. Berdasarkan Keputusan Mendiknas Nomor 045 Tahun 2002, kompetensi dinyatakan sebagai seperangkat tindakan cerdas penuh tanggungjawab yang dimiliki seseorang sebagai syarat untuk dianggap mampu oleh masyarakat dalam melaksanakan tugas-tugas di bidang pekerjaan tertentu;

15. Dalam konteks penyelenggaraan Sistem Administrasi Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, kompetensi dikelompokkan atas 4 jenis, yaitu (SANKRI, 2003 :75-76) : 
Kompetensi Teknik (technical competence) yaitu kompetensi mengenai bidang yang menjadi tugas pokok organisasi. Definisi yang sama dimuat dalam PP no 101/2000 tentang DIklat Jabatan PNS, bahwa kompetensi teknis adalah kemampuan PNS dalam bidang teknis tertentu untuk pelaksanaan tugas masing-masing. Bagi PNS yang belum memenuhi persyaratan kompetensi jabatan perlu mengikuti Diklat teknis yang berkaitan dengan persyaratan kompetensi jabatan masing-masing. 
Kompetensi Manajerial (managerial competence) adalah kompetensi yang berhubungan dengan berbagai kemampuan manajerial yang dibutuhkan dalam menangani tugas organisasi. Kompetensi manajerial meliputi kemampuan menerapkan konsep dan teknik perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengendalian dan evaluasi kinerja unit organisasi, juga kemampuan dalam melaksanakan prinsip good governance dalam manajemen pemerintahan dan pembangunan termasuk bagaimana mendayagunakan kemanfaatan sumberdaya pembangunan untuk mendukung kelancaran pelaksanaan tugas. 
Kompetensi Sosial (Social Competence), yaitu kemampuan melakukan komunikasi yang dibutuhkan oleh organisasi dalam pelaksanaan tugas pokoknya. Kompetensi sosial dapat terlihat di lingkungan internal seperti memotivasi SDM dan atau peran serta masyarakat guna meningkatkan produktivitas kerja, atau yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan eksternal seperti melaksanakan pola kemitraan, kolaborasi dan pengembangan jaringan kerja dengan berbagai lembaga dalam rangka meningkatkan citra dan kinerja organisasi, termasuk bagaimana menunjukkan kepekaan terhadap hak asasi manusia, nilai-nilai sosial budaya dan sikap tanggap terhadap aspirasi dan dinamika masyarakat 
Kompetensi intelektual/Strategik (intellectual / strategic competence), yaitu kemampuan untuk berpikir secara strategic dengan visi jauh ke depan. Kompetensi intelektual ini meliputi kemampuan merumuskan visi, misi, dan strategi dalam rangka mencapai tujuan organisasi sebagai bagian integral dari pembangunan Nasional, merumuskan dan memberi masukan untuk pemecahan masalah dan pengambilan keputusan yang logis dan sistematis, juga kemampuan dalam hal memahami paradigma pembangunan yang relevan dalam upaya mewujudkan good governance dan mencapai tujuan berbangsa dan bernegara, serta kemampuan dalam menjelaskan kedudukan, tugas, fungsi organisasi instansi dalam hubungannya dengan Sistem Administrasi Negara Republik Indonesia. 

Dari beberapa pengertian di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa : 
Kata kompetensi, kata dasarnya kompeten, berarti cakap mampu atau terampil; 
Kompetensi adalah tingkat kemampuan seseorang untuk melaksanakan kewenangan dan tanggungjawab yang dimiliki dalam melaksanakan tugasnya secara efektif efisien; 
Kompetensi adalah tingkat kemampuan seseorang untuk melaksanakan kewenangan dan tanggungjawab yang dimiliki dalam melaksanakan tugasnya secara efektif efisien; 
Konsepsi kompetensi meliputi 3 (tiga) aspek, yaitu : 

a. adalah kemampuan dasar yang dimiliki setiap orang yang menyangkut karakteristik bakat (traits), motiv dan motivasi; 
b. adalah kemampuan teknis yang dimiliki seseorang dalam pelaksanaan tugas-tugas teknis; 
c. adalah kemampuan seseorang dalam hal manajemen, kepemimpinan dan administrasi. 

5. 5 (lima) karakteristik dasar kompetensi, meliputi :
Motif (motive), sesuatu yang secara terus menerus dipikirkan atau diinginkan oleh seseorang yang menyebabkan adanya tindakan. Motif ini menggerakan, mengarahkan dan memiliki perilaku terhadap tindakan tertentu atau tujuan dan berbeda dari orang lain; 
Sifat (traits), karakteristik fisik dan respon yang konsisten terhadap situasi dan informasi; 
Konsep pribadi (self concept), perilaku, nilai dan kesan pribadi seseorang; 
Pengetahuan (knowledge), informasi mengenai seseorang yang memiliki bidang substansi tertentu; 
Keterampilan (skill), kemampuan untuk melaksanakan tugas fisik dan mental tertentu. 


C. Mengapa PNS harus memiliki kompetensi ?

Pergeseran paradigma penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dari “rule government” menjadi “good governance” atau “from government to governance”, dari sentralistik ke desentralistis, maka perlu disikapi dan diimbangi dengan PNS yang memiliki kompetensi yang memadai dan sesuai dengan tuntutan tugas.

Keberadaan PNS di era reformasi dan penyelengaraan otonomi daerah sekarang ini memiliki posisi yang sangat strategis, karena lancar tidaknya, baik buruknya penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dan pelayanan publik, sangat tergantung kepada kompetensi yang dimiliki dan dikuasai oleh PNS.

Mengapa PNS harus memiliki kompetensi ?, diantaranya karena tuntutan : 
tugas, pokok, fungsi, kewenangan dan tanggungjawab yang harus dilaksanakan, yaitu memberikan pelayanan publik; 
pelaksanaan kepemerintahan yang baik (Good Governance); 
dalam upaya mengimbangi perubahan lingkungan strategis yang cepat berubah, baik itu lingkungan internal organisasi, maupun lingkungan eksternal organisasi; 
perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan era globalisasi yang sedang berlangsung yang tidak bisa di tolak dan dicegah lagi; 
serta pelaksanaan otonomi daerah. 

Kompetensi PNS ini berkaitan dengan kemampuan berupa pengetahuan, keterampilan, kecakapan, sikap dan perilaku yang diperlukan dalam pelaksanaan tugas pokok, fungsi kewenangan dan tanggungjawab yang diamanatkan kepadanya.

Untuk itu kualifikasi aparatur pemerintah (PNS), terutama para pemimpin dalam birokrasi publik menurut Widodo (2006), harus : berakhlak bersih dan tidak cacat moral, memiliki visi ke depan. Selanjutnya menurut Ulrich dalam Tilaar (1997), bahwa untuk menciptakan sebuah kepemimpinan publik yang unggul diperlukan empat agenda utama, yaitu : (1) menjadi rekan yang stratejik, (2) menjadi seorang pakar, (3) menjadi seorang pekerja ulung dan (4) menjadi seorang agent of change (agen perubahan).

Dalam upaya memenuhi kompetensi PNS, Bass (1985), berpendapat dapat diupayakan melalui kompetensi transformasi seorang pemimpin, yaitu : (1) meningkatkan kesadaran pegawai terhadap nilai dan pentingnya tugas dan pekerjaan, (2) mengarahkan pegawai untuk fokus pada tujuan kelompok dan organisasi, bukan pada kepentingan pribadi, dan (3) mengembangkan potensi pegawai secara optimal.

Menurut Harbani Pasolong (2008), setidaknya terdapat sepuluh prinsip kepemimpinan transformasional dalam pengelolaan birokrasi pemerintahan, yakni : (1) kejelasan visi, kepemimpinan yang baik selalu mulai dengan visi yang merefleksikan tujuan bersama, dan dijelaskan kepada seluruh pegawai dengan gamlang dan sederhana, (2) kesadaran pegawai, selalu berusaha untuk meningkatkan terhadap nilai dan pentingnya tugas dan pekerjaan bagi organisasi, (3) pencapain visi, berorientasi pada pencapaian visi dengan cara menjaga dan memelihara komitmen yang telah dibangun bersama, (4) pelopr perubahan, (5) pengembangan diri, (6) pembelajaran pegawai, (7) pengembangan pegawai, (8) pengembangan kreativitas, (9) budaya kerjasama, dan (10) kondusifitas organisasi.

Dalam upaya meningkatkan kompetensi PNS khususnya para pejabat struktural, Undang-undang Nomor 43 Tahun 1999 (UU 43/199) tentang Perubahan atas UU 8/1974 tentang Pokok-pokok Kepegawaian, dalam Pasal 17 ayat 2 mengatur pengangkatan PNS dalam suatu jabatan dilaksanakan berdasarkan prinsip profesionalisme sesuai dengan kompetensi, prestasi kerja, dan jenjang pangkat yang ditetapkan untuk jabatan itu serta syarat objektif lainnya tanpa membedakan jenis kelamin, suku, agama, ras, atau golongan.

Untuk menentukan Standar Kompetensi Jabatan, telah ditetapkan Keputusan Kepala Badan Kepegawaian Negara Nomor 13 Tahun 2011 tanggal 28 Juni 2011 tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Standar Kompetensi Jabatan. Pedoman ini merupakan panduan bagi setiap instansi pemerintah baik pusat maupun daerah dalam menyusun standar kompetensi jabatan pada instansi masing-masing.

Standar Kompetensi Jabatan yang selanjutnya disebut Standar Kompetensi Manajerial adalah persyaratan kompetensi manajerial minimal yang harus dimiliki seorang PNS dalam melaksanakan tugas jabatan. Sedangkan Kompetensi Manajerial adalah karakteristik yang mendasari individu dengan merujuk pada kriteria efektif dan/atau kinerja unggul dalam jabatan tertentu. 

Dengan demikian setiap PNS yang akan memangku jabatan struktural harus memiliki standar kompetensi jabatan sesuai Keputusan Kepala Badan Kepegawaian Negara Nomor 13 Tahun 2011. Berdasarkan kamus kompetensi manajerial yang tertuang dalam Keputusan Kepala Badan Kepegawaian Negara Nomor 13 Tahun 2011, ada sekitar 39 (tiga puluh Sembilan) kompetensi manajerial yang harus dimiliki setiap pejabat struktural eselon, IV, III, II dan I. 

Selain pejabat struktural, penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dan pelayanan publik dilaksanakan oleh pejabat fungsional yakni kedudukan yang menunjukkan tugas, tanggung jawab, wewenang dan hak seseorang Pegawai Negeri Sipil dalam suatu satuan organisasi yang dalam pelaksanaan tugasnya didasarkan pada keahlian dan/atau ketrampilan tertentu serta bersifat mandiri. 


D. Bagaimana meningkatkan kompetensi PNS

Tujuan reformasi birokrasi adalah membangun kepercayaan masyarakat (public trust building) dan menghilangkan citra negatif birokrasi pemerintahan. Visi reformasi birokrasi adalah terwujudnya aparatur Negara yang professional dan kepemerintahan yang baik (good governance). Misi reformasi birokrasi adalah mengubah pola/alam pikiran (mindset), pola budaya (cultural set), dan system tata kelola pemerintahan. Adapun sasaran reformasi birokrasi adalah terwujudnya birokrasi yang : bersih, efektif, efisien, produktif, transparan dan terdesentralisasi.

Perubahan pola pikir PNS dari ingin dilayani menjadi pelayan (pamong) yang menyenangkan masyarakat. Dari pola budaya santai, malas-malasan dan tidak berdisiplin, menjadi pola budaya kerja keras, bersemangat, inovatif, kreatif dan berdisiplin. Dari system tatakelola (manajemen) pemerintahan yang birokratik ke system pemerintahan bercorak bisnis/wirausaha.

Dalam upaya mewujudkan reformasi birokrasi dan meningkatkan kompetensi PNS ditempuh melalui : 
Penataan kembali kelembagaan/organisasi, Sumber Daya Manusia Aparatur dan tatalaksana (manajemen) pemerintahan dengan ukuran yang pas (right sizing) sesuai dengan tujuan, urhensi, visi dan misi yang diemban; 

Peningkatan kapasitas dan kapabilitas para birokrat (PNS) dalam perumusan kebijakan, pemberian pelayanan dan pemberdayaan masyarakat. Peningkatan kapasitas dan kapabilitas atau kompetensi PNS diupayakan dengan cara : 
1. Pendidikan Formal, yakni dengan penugasan para PNS untuk mengikuti jenjang pendidikan tinggi S1, S2, dan S3, serta pemberian ijin belajar jenjang S1, S2, dan S3; 
2. Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Jabatan yang dipersyaratkan, yakni Diklatpim Tingkat IV, Diklatpim Tingkat III, Diklatpim Tingkat II, dan Diklatpim Tingkat I; 
3. Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Fungsional bagi PNS yang dipersiapkan untuk menduduki jabatan fungsional; 
4. Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Teknis, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan keahlian para PNS di bidang teknis tertentu; 
5. Pemberian kemampuan melalui pengalaman (Tour of duty) para PNS. 
6. Perbaikan sistem tatakelola (manajemen) urusan pemerintahan dan pelayanan masyarakat dengan mengoptimalkan penggunaan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Dimana sekarang ini hamper semua instansi/organisasi perangkat daerah sudah memiliki web site, sehingga berbagai informasi/kebijakan bisa diakses oleh masyarakat; 
7. Perbaikan sistemreward and punishment. Sistem reward dengan menerapkan equal work for equal pay atau pemberian gaji yang layak sesuai dengan tingkat kedudukannya dalam organisasi. Pemberian hukuman bagi yang melakukan pelanggaran sesuai dengan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 53 Tahun 2010 tentang Disiplin PNS; 
8. Perbaikan etika dan moralitas PNS sebagaimana diatur dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 42 Tahun 2004 tentang Pembinaan Jiwa Korp dan Kode Etik PNS, dan meningkatkan pengawasan (pengawasan internal, pengawasan eksternal, pengawasan masyarakat). 

Daftar Pustaka : 
Asmawi Rewansyah, Reformasi Birokrasi Dalam Rangka Good Governance, CV. Yusaintanas Prima, Jakarta, 2010; 
Asmawi Rewansyah, Kepemimpinan Dalam Pelayanan Publik, CV. Yusaintanas Prima, Jakarta, 2011; 
Dodi Ahmad Fauzi, Bagaimana Menjadi CEO Yang Handal, Restu Agung, Jakarta, 2007; 
Endah Setyowati, Makalah Pengembangan SDM Berbasis Kompetensi :Solusi Untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Organisasi; 
Harbani Pasolong, Kepemimpinan Birokrasi, Alfabeta, Bandung, 2008; 
Joko Widodo, Membangun Birokrasi Berbasis Kinerja, Bayumedia, Malang, 2007; 
Sedarmayanti, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (Reformasi Birokrasi dan Manajemen PNS), PT. Refika Aditama, Bandung, 2007; 
Sedarmayanti, Makalah Pelatihan Berdasarkan Kompetensi Untuk Masa Depan, Maret, 2011; 
Semuil Tjiharjadi, To Be A Great Leader, Penerbit Andi, Yogyakarta, 2007; 
Stephen H. Rhinesmith, Panduan Bagi Manajer Menuju Globalisasi, Interaksara, Edisi Kedua, 2011. 


Sumber : Bidang Kesdis BKD Prov Jabar 
Penulis : Kepala Bidang Kesdis
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